Archive for the ‘Linux’ Category

We need to compile the package even the binaray package is available for use in the distribution repositories, for instance you have got the binary package which as some special features have disabled so, ifyou need to enable those features, at this stage you need to download the source enable the required features, compile and install it into the system.

step1:Get the source from the distribution repositories, here I am using ubuntu 12.04 LTS so I will download the package from the ubuntu repositores
tulsi@surfer:~$ apt-get source gedit
Edit it’s configuration file as per your requirement, compile and install it

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Comiling software from source is not so much difficult as you expect. In this tutorial we are going to look the two ways of compiling software in linux system

The first on is  use the Source code available in software repositories, repositories may be of (UBUNTU,DEBIAN,FEDORA or many other Linux distribution) and the second method is to use the source code provided by upstream developers, the second method is most useful for the project which source code are not available in the distribution repositories. for compiling the source code we need the three tools, This tutorials is based on ubuntu 12.04 LTS. To compile the software the 3 tools which are going to be needed are as follows;
  1. build essential=> need for compilation
  2. automake => Build Tools
  3. checkinstall=> Build Tools 
Compiling from the  Tarball:
Most of the source code that is not in the software repositories is available in the form of compressed source tarballs, the files which are compressed using gzip or bzip, to compile the software from the tarballs source code perform the following steps
Create the directory into the Home directory called source
tulsi@surfer:~$ sudo mkdir -p /home/source
uncompressed the downloaded tar file into the home directory using -C command
tulsi@surfer:~$ sudo tar -xvjf /home/tulsi/Downloads/git- -c /home/tulsi/source
and you will see the output like this in your screen

 In the above command we use the option -X for extract v for verbose to see the output in screen z for the tar.gz file f for output file

if your downloaded file is in the format of filename.tar.bz2 you need to provide the option -xvjf ie: z is replaced by j for tar.bz2 file extension
If you are not sure which file compression is used by the downloaded tarball you can check the compression methond by file command which is as follows
tulsi@surfer:~$ file /home/tulsi/Downloads/git- 

/home/tulsi/Downloads/git- gzip compressed data, was “git-”, from Unix, last modified: Fri Sep 27 05:34:38 2013, max compression 

Now it’s time to compile the source code and install it
root@surfer:/home/source/git- ./configure=> This command will check for the exact necessary dependencies
root@surfer:/home/source/git- make => This step will compile the software
root@surfer:/home/source/git- make install=> This will install the software finally in your machine

Note: There is not the same way to compile the software from the source code each code may have diffrent way to compile the software so it is better to check the  README FILE before compiling and installing the software from the source code

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For webserver Configuration, we only need to setup LAMPP in linux system and edit the IP tables to access the server from the remote computer.To do this, follow the following Steps

1 INSTALLING MYSQL 5 To install MySQL, we do this:

#yum install mysql mysql-server

Then we create the system startup links for MySQL (so that MySQL starts automatically whenever the system boots) and start the MySQL server:

#chkconfig –levels 235 mysqld on

#/etc/init.d/mysqld start

To Set passwords for the MySQL root account:

# mysql_secure_installation

2. Installing Apache2

#yum install httpd => This command install APache

Now configure your system to start Apache at boot time…

#chkconfig –levels 235 httpd on

#/etc/init.d/httpd start

Now direct your browser to, and you should see the Apache2 if your setup has been good you will see the following page

Webserver Configuration


Apache’s default document root is /var/www/html on CentOS, and the configuration file is /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. Additional configurations are stored in the/etc/httpd/conf.d/ directory.

4 Installing PHP5

We can install PHP5 and the Apache PHP5 module as follows:

#yum install php

We must restart Apache afterwards:

#/etc/init.d/httpd restart

Apache wouldn’t work off the bat if you’re trying to see it from another computer…you have to add a firewall exception:
…first turn it off:

# service iptables stop

and edit the configuration files

# vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables

We need to add a rule

-A INPUT -m state –state NEW -m tcp -p tcp –dport 80 -j ACCEPT

Start start firewall again

#service iptables start

…if you want to remotely access MySQL as well (I do) you also add:

-A INPUT -m state –state NEW -m tcp -p tcp –dport 3306 -j ACCEPT

5 Testing PHP5 / Getting Details About Your PHP5 Installation

 The document root of the default web site is /var/www/html. We will now create a small PHP file (info.php) in that directory and call it in a browser. The file will display lots of useful details about our PHP installation, such as the installed PHP version.
#vi /var/www/html/info.php
 we call that file in a browser (e.g.

PHP installation in LINUX

6 Getting MySQL Support In PHP5

To get MySQL support in PHP, we can install the php-mysql package. It’s a good idea to install some other PHP5 modules as well as you might need them for your applications. You can search for available PHP5 modules like this:

#yum search php

Pick the ones you need and install them like this:

#yum install php-mysql php-gd php-imap php-ldap php-mbstring php-odbc php-pear php-xml php-xmlrpc

APC is a free and open PHP opcode cacher for caching and optimizing PHP intermediate code. It’s similar to other PHP opcode cachers, such as eAccelerator and Xcache. It is strongly recommended to have one of these installed to speed up your PHP page.

APC can be installed as follows:

#yum install php-pecl-apc

Now restart Apache2:

#/etc/init.d/httpd restart

Now reload in your browser and scroll down to the modules section again. You should now find lots of new modules there, including the MySQL module:

7 phpMyAdmin

phpMyAdmin is a web interface through which you can manage your MySQL databases.

First we enable the RPMforge repository on our CentOS system as phpMyAdmin is not available in the official CentOS 6.3 repositories:

Import the RPMforge GPG key:

#rpm –import http://dag.wieers.com/rpm/packages/RPM-GPG-KEY.dag.txt

On x86_64 systems:

#yum install http://pkgs.repoforge.org/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.2-2.el6.rf.x86_64.rpm

On i386 systems:

#yum install http://pkgs.repoforge.org/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.2-2.el6.rf.i686.rpm

phpMyAdmin can now be installed as follows:

#yum install phpmyadmin

Now we configure phpMyAdmin. We change the Apache configuration so that phpMyAdmin allows connections not just from localhost (by commenting out the <Directory “/usr/share/phpmyadmin”> stanza):

#vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/phpmyadmin.conf

Web application to manage MySQL

#<Directory "/usr/share/phpmyadmin">
#  Order Deny,Allow
#  Deny from all
#  Allow from

Alias /phpmyadmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin
Alias /phpMyAdmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin
Alias /mysqladmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin

Next we change the authentication in phpMyAdmin from cookie to http:

#vi /usr/share/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php

/* Authentication type */
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type'] = 'http';

Restart Apache:

#/etc/init.d/httpd restart

Afterwards, you can access phpMyAdmin under


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Join command is used in linux system to combine the content of two file by matching the field of two files, for instance,  If file1.txt contain the field ” First name”  and other field “Last Name”  while  other file file2.txt contain the number of each candidate, when we run the command join file1.txt file2.txt, This command join the firstname, last name and phone number

[root@manoj]$ join file1.txt file2.txt

Paste Command: If we run the command paste file1.txt file2.txt, This command display the line of each file line by line, for example file1.txt line displayed in first line and in second line file2.txt first line will be displayed

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Be clear, Linux is not an application, It is an Operating system, Like other Operating System, It provide the five functions to the computer system

APplication Platform:  It provides the platform where applications run and make a way to access to CPU and main  memory for the proper functioning.

Hardware Moderator for Applications: It act’s as a mediator between running applications and the system hardware, as we know most application doesn’t written to directly address the system hardware. It this case the application call the prewritten code of the operating system to that provide the access to system hardware and peripherals, code for accessing the input output devices, code for accessing the communication ports and code for accessing the main memory, this is the condition  where application program simply reuse the code of operating system to access the system hardware, Operating system manage applications by allocating a segment of memory to each applications which ensure that one application does’t try to use memory that’s being used by other applications.

Data Storage: The Operating system is responsible for providing the data storage method for application users to the storage devices in the efficient way

Security: Operating system provides the security to stored data by defining different policy method,

Connectivity: It provides the different connection method via different port using different connection media

Linux KErnel: Linux kernel is the heart of the Operating System, it’s itself a mini operating system, it’s main function is to allocate the hardware resource and provide the way for application as well as system software to access the hardware

Libraries: Libraries are the prewritten code, that use by the application programmer’s in their program’s  use of libraries in programs can save the huge time of programmer, application programmer can call the operating system libraries in their application for the proper function of their applications

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Many of you are tired surfing internet about how to install packettracer in Linux host machine, In this tutorials I simply guide you through  the simplest instruction about installing the packettracer in Linux system, here the Linux host machine that I have considered is  CENTOS-6, but same rule applies for the fedora core as well as for the Redhat Linux,

As, you guys already know packettracer is the cisco devices network simulation software, Packettracer allows us to simulate and test the different networks topology with the CISCO routers and CISCO switches. Without talking much more, let’s jump into our objectives.

To install Packettracer in Linux host, we download the BIN Package of Packettracer from the internet, which can find from this link DOWNLOAD PACKETTRACER, after having this bin package we follow the following steps as shown below


[root@manoj Downloads] # CP PacketTracer533_i386_no_tutorials_installer-rpm.bin /usr/bin

STEP2: Make the Packettracer file executable by issuing the following command

[root@manoj bin] # chmod+x  PacketTracer533_i386_no_tutorials_installer-rpm.bin

STEP3: Installation of Packettracer
To install the packettracer issue the following command in your console, remember that you should be in the bin directory

[root@manoj bin] # PacketTracer533_i386_no_tutorials_installer-rpm.bin

STEP4: Installation Complete
After issuing the above command accept the agreement by typingyes which finally install the packettracer in your LINUX HOST machine, to launch packettracer go to


Snapshot is shown below

Packettracer launching snapshot

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GNOME:  Gnome stands for GNU Network Object Model Environment, if you want know all about GNOME you can visit the GNOME home page at GNOME HOME. we can define the GNOME as the Linux desktop development Platform. It got life in August 1997 and became the favorite X-Window platform, in the LINUX host machine.

So, what are the most attractive features of GNOME ?

  • It is GUI having the window manager
  • Nautilus is it’s file manager
  • Highly customized and themeable
  • GNOME alternative is KDE





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